With the ever-increasing cost of health insurance and medical care, you should take advantage of any chance to claim healthcare-related tax breaks. Unfortunately, changes taking effect in 2013 make doing so tougher.
Before this year, you could claim an itemized deduction for medical expenses paid for you, your spouse, and your dependents, to the extent those expenses exceeded 7.5 percent of your adjust gross income (AGI).
Your AGI is the number at the bottom of page 1 of your Form 1040. It includes all your taxable income items and is reduced by certain write-offs, such as those for moving expenses, deductible IRA contributions, alimony payments, and student loan interest.
The 7.5 percent-of-AGI hurdle was hard enough to clear. Now, thanks to the 2010 healthcare legislation, an even higher threshold of 10 percent of AGI applies to most taxpayers, beginning this year. However if either you or your spouse will be 65 or older as of December 31, 2013, the unfavorable new 10 percent-of-AGI threshold will not affect you until 2017. Until then, the longstanding 7.5 percent-of-AGI threshold will continue to apply for those 65 and older.
Although many types of medical expenses qualify for the deduction, others are ineligible, such as cosmetic surgery that improves a person’s appearance but doesn’t treat illness or disease or help the body function better.
If you have flexibility about when medical expenses are incurred, you may be able to concentrate them in alternating years. That way, you can claim an itemized medical expense deduction every other year—or every third year—instead of never getting a tax benefit.
Example: Let’s say your AGI is $65,000. You pay $11,000 of medical expenses in 2013 because you have elective surgery, buy new contact lenses, and have a dentist put sealants on your children’s teeth. Next year, you pay only $2,000 in medical expenses.
On your 2013 Form 1040, you can claim an itemized deduction of $4,500 ($11,000 minus the $6,500 10 percent-of-AGI threshold). Next year, you won’t have any deduction. But if you simply spread the two-year total of $13,000 of medical costs evenly over this year and next year, you’ll be completely out of luck in both years.
Bottom Line: Deductions in some years are better than no deductions.
Until this year, no tax law limited contributions to your employer’s healthcare flexible spending account (FSA) plan (although many plans impose their own limits). But the FSA situation has also changed.
Background: Amounts you contribute to the FSA plan are subtracted from your taxable salary. Then, you can use the funds to reimburse yourself, tax free, to cover qualified medical expenses that are not reimbursed by insurance.
Starting this year, however, the maximum annual FSA contribution for each employee is capped at $2,500 by law. You should still take full advantage of your company’s FSA plan if it offers one. Failing to do so is like leaving money on the table.
Self-employed taxpayers who pay their own medical and dental insurance premiums are generally allowed to deduct these costs “above the line” on page 1 of Form 1040. This rule is helpful because you do not need to itemize to benefit from an above-the-line deduction.
Unfortunately, that’s about the end of the good news. In general, your only recourse for other out-of-pocket medical expenses (other than health premiums) is claiming an itemized deduction when those costs exceed 10 percent of AGI (or 7.5 percent if you qualify for the lower threshold due to your age or your spouse’s age).
The federal income tax treatment of out-of-pocket medical expenses has taken a turn for the worse. However, your tax results might be able to be improved if you plan ahead for medical expenditures (to the extent possible) and take advantage of your employer’s healthcare FSA (if it offers one). If you have questions or want more information about your situation, contact your tax adviser.